the difference between passive and active immunity? | Yahoo Answers
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A number of immunological factors such as cytokines have been identified in human breastmilk [ 27 ]. Cytokines that are present in breastmilk can potentially interact with mucosal and lymphoid tissues in the upper parts of the respiratory as well as gastrointestinal tract [ 27 ]. Breastmilk contains anti-proteases that interfere with proteolysis, and some digestive agents are not fully developed in the newborn period.
Thus, biological functions of cytokines that are developmentally delayed in their production may be replaced by those present in breastmilk [ 27 ]. However, little is known about the role of cellular immune response and their effect on breastmilk after maternal vaccination. It has been reported that only one third of infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers who are continuously exposed to maternal breastmilk get infected. This observation raises the possibility that immune factors in infected women play a role in limiting HIV-1 transmission [ 28 ].
Moreover, a recent study by Mabuka et al. Their study adds to the growing evidence of a potential role of non-neutralizing antibodies in limiting HIV-1 transmission and calls for more attention to the HIV-1 response [ 28 ]. There has been a lot of controversy concerning the physiological significance of complement system in human breastmilk. This is mainly due to the observation that breastmilk contains predominantly non-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory factors, while simultaneously protecting the infant against a wide range of diseases [ 29 ].
A study by Ogundele assessed the role of complement system to the bactericidal activity of human colostrum. Results proved that deposition of activated C3 fragments on the killed examined bacteria was demonstrated and that the bactericidal activity of breastmilk was completely inhibited by heat inactivation of complement.
A review by Peterson et al. It is important to know that breastmilk contains all these factors against specific type of microorganisms. Maternal vaccination strengthens breastmilk immunity In developing countries, the administration of live vaccines during pregnancy is contraindicated because of the possible transplacental transmission of the attenuated virus to the foetus [ 4 ]. In contrast vaccination with killed or inactivated virus has not shown to cause any risk to the fetus when administered during pregnancy [ 34 ].
This strategy has the potential to protect the foetus and the pregnant woman from many infectious diseases during pregnancy. In addition it provides better protection to the infant after birth during the first months of life when they are too young to be vaccinated [ 35 ]. The direction provided through the practice of breastfeeding towards infant immunity and the augmentation by breastmilk of infant immunity is still insufficient to drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality of many diseases among infants.
It is known that vaccination confers protection by means of enhanced and focused immune responses [ 36 ].
What is the difference between passive and active immunity? | MyTutor
It has been postulated that greater specific protection and more enduring immune responses transferred to the child through breastfeeding by maternal vaccination are of immense benefit to the infant. The many vaccine-induced immunological reactions may be assumed to be theoretically additive or even synergistic to the innate immune protection that is already present in breastmilk.
Many pathogens infect infants via mucosal surfaces. Therefore, stimulation of a local immune response at the site of infection would be the ultimate goal of a mucosal vaccine [ 32 ]. However, mucosal immunization faces difficulties in stimulating long-lasting immune responses. Therefore, there is a need to develop effective vaccine adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems that transport antigen into the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MALT and provide protective immunity [ 32 ].
It is believed that breastmilk through the act of exclusive breastfeeding provides the infant with such protective advantage. In a study emphasising the role of breastfeeding as compliment to vaccination, it was found that breastfeeding seems to have a positive overall effect on vaccination [ 37 ].
The role of breastfeeding influencing different aspects of vaccination in the first 6 months which is a period of dynamic pain management, immunomodulation of vaccine responses and metabolism of thimerosal —such affects were looked at [ 37 ]. The study indicated that breastfeeding is a positive factor in mothers and infants coping with the stressful situations linked to parenteral vaccines, improves responses to vaccines and even modifies the effect on metabolism of ethyl mercury derived from some vaccines [ 37 ].
Optimal protection and health promotion supporting vaccination must highlight early initiation and sustenance of breastfeeding for six months [ 37 ]. A prospective study by Pisacane et al. Results showed that the protection conferred by breastfeeding persisted even when considering the role of several potential confounders [ 38 ].
The authors concluded that breastfeeding was associated with a decreased incidence of fever after immunizations Figure 2. Maternal vaccination improves breastmilk protection while early neonatal diseases require augmented breastmilk protection enabled by maternal vaccination.
Although breastfeeding is essential to modulate immune defences, vaccines are crucial to prevent infectious diseases. However, maternal factors related to breastmilk constituents and feeding practices can affect the response to vaccines [ 39 ]. Sucklings without receiving the full benefit of breastfeeding could have altered immune responses affecting vaccine outcome [ 39 ].
The study concluded that vaccination practices should encourage the practice of exclusive breastfeeding [ 39 ].
Maternal vaccination during pregnancy results in an augmentation of disease-specific maternal antibodies. Immunoglobulin G IgG is mainly transferred through the placenta during the third trimester of pregnancy, while secretory IgA is passed through breastmilk. Newborns are partially protected against infections by these antibodies [ 35 ]. The placental transport of IgG depends on the placental function and on the concentration of maternal antibodies in the pregnant woman [ 8 ].
The concentration of IgG in women at childbearing age is defined by the previous exposure to the antigen through either disease or vaccination. A study by Gall et al. In contrast, little is known about the effect of vaccination during pregnancy on the transfer of vaccine-induced maternal secretory IgA via breastfeeding.
A recent review provides an overview of the effect of vaccination during pregnancy on the immunological protection of the newborn [ 35 ]. The review emphasized the beneficial effects of maternal vaccination during pregnancy on the amount of disease-specific sIgA in breastmilk. To substantiate this observation, it was noted that breastfeeding after maternal vaccination resulted in a lower incidence of some infectious disease in infants [ 35 ].
Breastfeeding as a Tool that Empowers Infant Immunity through Maternal Vaccination
Further research is needed to assess the effect on disease-specific sIgA in breastmilk and its potentially beneficial effects to the infant. A review by Mantis et al.
Secretory IgA also functions as a part of the innate immunity being independent of antibody variable region and other plausible pathways for immune defence [ 40 ]. Furthering this description, it is suggested that while sIgA has a continuum of protective actions including that which has been described, sIgA is produced as a result of exposure to diseases and in greater magnitude as a consequence of maternal vaccination and its capacity may be augmented relevant to the clearance of pathogens or their products [ 40 ].
The presence of maternal anibodies are known to interfere with infant vaccine responses.
Active vs. Passive Immunity? | Yahoo Answers
A study by Crowe Jr. Plausible explanations to how maternal antibodies dampen infant immune responses have been made. This inhibition is B cell determinant-specific that depends on the ratio between Maternal Antibody MatAb titres at the time of immunization and the dose of vaccine antigens. In contrast, determinant-specific masking of B cell epitopes and the uptake of antigen presenting cells APCs to MatAb which is vaccine antigen immune complexes explains the pattern of responses to infant vaccines [ 43 ].
The observation that these cells remain functional comes from positive skin responses to purified protein derivative PPD of mycobacteria which can be transferred from one individual to another via breastmilk [ 45 ]. Other studies have shown reductions in the alloreactivity of breast-fed infants who were given maternal allografts [ 46 ].
The questions that we believe are important to be asked are these cells capable of amplifying immunity, focusing useful immunity and eliminating unnecessary immune reactions? Could these immune reactions be incorporated within vaccines? Currently hypothetical, these issues need consideration.
A study by Pabst et al. Their results showed that breastfeeding significantly enhanced cell-mediated immune response to BCG vaccine given at birth but had no significant effect if the vaccine was given after 1 month. And used for immunization of experimental ducks. Each dose contains EID Viruses and viral antigens Avian influenza antigen: H5N2 antigen of avian influenza virus was supplied by ID.
Vero cell culture adapted duck plague virus used in SNT. Virulent duck plague virus: It was used for challenge of vaccinated ducks. Duck plague virus antigen: It was prepared by infection of Vero cells with the virus then 2 cycles of freezing and thawing when complete CPE was obtained and centrifuged at rpm for 5 minutes followed by centrifugation atrpm for 1 hour at 4oC and the virus pellet was suspended in PBS with pH 7.
Birds and experimental design The experimental ducklings include birds divided into 4 groups where each of the first 3 groups includes 50 ducklings while the 4th group includes 25 ducklings managed in the following manner: Group 2 vaccinated at 7 day old with 0.
Group 3 vaccinated with DP vaccine at 7-day old simultaneously with 0. Group 4 was kept without vaccination as test control. Sampling Blood samples were obtained from the experimental birds through the jugular vein puncture [ 6 ] and serum was separated for serological tests.
Haemagglutination inhibition test HIT It was done using the Beta procedure constant virus plus diluted serum [ 8 ]. The titer was expressed [ 10 ]. Challenge test Challenge test did not carried out against AI to avoid public health hazard while challenge against virulent DPV was carried out [ 12 ] where each vaccinated and unvaccinated ducks was inoculated with 0.
All challenged ducks were kept under daily clinical observation for 10 days till disease manifestations attributable to DEV infection were noticed on unvaccinated ducks. Results and Discussion Through the present work, it was noticed that both vaccinated duckling groups exhibited detectable AI-HI antibodies by the 2nd week post vaccination. These titers recorded their peak by the 2nd week and 3rd week after administration of the 2nd dose in the 2nd and 3rd duckling groups respectively then began to decline in both groups by the 12th week post the 2nd dose to reach their lowest titer then diminish at the end of the experiment.
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These results are demonstrated in Table 1.